ACG & AASLD Recommendation

ACG’s Expert Opinion and AASLD Guidelines recommend OCALIVA® for PBC patients who have not achieved their treatment goal with UDCA alone or who cannot tolerate UDCA.1,2

EFFICACY

OCALIVA delivers significant, sustained alkaline phosphatase (ALP) reductions in combination with UDCA or when given as a monotherapy in UDCA-intolerant patients.3,4

Pivotal Trial Data and Study Design

A clinical trial evaluated the effectiveness of OCALIVA as a combination therapy in patients who were taking UDCA or as monotherapy in patients who were unable to tolerate UDCA.3

Nearly 5x as Many Patients Taking OCALIVA Plus UDCA Achieved the Primary Endpoint vs UDCA Alone3

Primary Endpoint

A total of 46% of OCALIVA plus UDCA patients met the primary endpoint at 12 months compared to 10% of patients taking placebo plus UDCA.

ALP <1.67x ULN

A total of 47% of OCALIVA plus UDCA patients achieved ALP <1.67x ULN.3

ALP Reduction ≥15%

Patients taking OCALIVA were 2.5x more likely than placebo to achieve a ≥15% reduction in ALP.3

Bilirubin ≤ULN

A higher percentage of OCALIVA patients achieved a response of total bilirubin ≤ULN at 12 months when compared with placebo.3

Study Design

OCALIVA was studied in patients who were already taking UDCA and who had an inadequate response or who were intolerant.3

Impact on ALP and Bilirubin Over 1 Year3,4

Significant ALP Reductions3-6

In a clinical trial, OCALIVA contributed to significant and sustained ALP reductions, with mean reductions >30% at 12 months (vs 5% for UDCA alone).3-6

Total Bilirubin Over 12 Months3

In this trial, 92% of patients had normal bilirubin levels at baseline.3

Among patients who completed treatment, 97% of patients in the OCALIVA titration group (N=64) and 95% of patients in the OCALIVA 10 mg group (n=63) had bilirubin levels ≤ULN vs 81% of patients in the placebo group (n=70).7

Up-Titration Efficacy: ALP Change from Baseline6

At 12 months, 39% of patients who were up-titrated from 5 mg to 10 mg at 6 months achieved the primary endpoint, including an ALP decrease of at least 15%.3

While the trial was designed for up-titration at 6 months, FDA guidance and product labeling recommend up-titration at 3 months, if tolerated.3

aA total of 16 patients (7%) who were intolerant did not receive concomitant UDCA: 6 patients (8%) in the OCALIVA 10 group, 5 patients (7%) in the OCALIVA 5→10 mg titration group, and 5 patients (7%) in the placebo group.3

bIn the 5→10 mg titration group, 36 patients stayed at 5 mg, and 33 were titrated to 10 mg after 6 months.7

OCALIVA Evaluated as Monotherapy

OCALIVA was also evaluated as monotherapy in a pooled analysis of 2 trials. OCALIVA use as monotherapy is indicated only if patients are unable to tolerate UDCA.3,c

Response Rate

In a pooled analysis of 2 trials, 38% of patients taking 10 mg of OCALIVA once daily exhibited a responsed after 3 months.3

Mean Reductions

After 3 months, the mean reduction in ALP was -246 U/L for OCALIVA 10 mg once daily.3

AASLD, American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases; ACG, American College of Gastroenterology; ALP, alkaline phosphatase; PBC, primary biliary cholangitis; UDCA, ursodeoxycholic acid; ULN, upper limit of normal.

cThe 51 PBC patients with baseline ALP ≥1.67x ULN and/or total bilirubin >1x ULN were evaluated for a biochemical response to OCALIVA as monotherapy (24 patients received OCALIVA 10 mg once daily and 27 patients received placebo) in a pooled analysis of data from the pivotal trial and from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-month trial.3

dResponse consists of alkaline phosphatase <1.67x ULN; alkaline phosphatase decrease of ≥15%; total bilirubin ≤ULN.

Dosing guidelines: Get more information regarding OCALIVA dosing for combination therapy and monotherapy.

Additional Resources

References

  1. Lindor KD, Bowlus CL, Boyer J, Levy C, Mayo M. Primary biliary cholangitis: 2018 practice guidance from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Hepatology. 2019;69(1):394-419. doi:10.1002/hep.30145.
  2. Younossi ZM, Bernstein D, Shiffman ML, et al. Diagnosis and management of primary biliary cholangitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2019;114(1):48-63. doi:10.1038/s41395-018-0390-3.
  3. OCALIVA [package insert]. New York, NY: Intercept Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2018.
  4. Nevens F, Andreone P, Mazzella G, et al; for the POISE Study Group. A placebo-controlled trial of obeticholic acid in primary biliary cholangitis. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(7):631-643. doi:1056/NEJMoa1509840.
  5. European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL clinical practice guidelines: the diagnosis and management of patients with primary biliary cholangitis. J Hepatol. 2017;67(1):145-172. doi:1016/j.jhep.2017.03.022.
  6. Nevens F, Andreone P, Mazzella G, et al; for the POISE Study Group. Supplementary appendix: A placebo-controlled trial of obeticholic acid in primary biliary cholangitis. N Engl J Med. 2016:1-37. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1509840.
  7. Data on file. US-PB-MED-00129. New York, NY: Intercept Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2015.

INDICATION AND IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

WARNING: HEPATIC DECOMPENSATION AND FAILURE IN INCORRECTLY DOSED PBC PATIENTS WITH CHILD-PUGH CLASS B OR C OR DECOMPENSATED CIRRHOSIS

  • In postmarketing reports, hepatic decompensation and failure, in some cases fatal, have been reported in patients with Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) with decompensated cirrhosis or Child-Pugh Class B or C hepatic impairment when OCALIVA was dosed more frequently than recommended.
  • The recommended starting dosage of OCALIVA is 5 mg once weekly for patients with Child-Pugh Class B or C hepatic impairment or a prior decompensation event.

INDICATION

OCALIVA is indicated for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) in combination with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in adults with an inadequate response to UDCA, or as monotherapy in adults unable to tolerate UDCA.

This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on a reduction in alkaline phosphatase (ALP). An improvement in survival or disease-related symptoms has not been established. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials.

Contraindications

OCALIVA is contraindicated in patients with complete biliary obstruction.

Warnings and Precautions

Hepatic Decompensation and Failure in Incorrectly Dosed PBC Patients with Child-Pugh Class B or C or Decompensated Cirrhosis

In postmarketing reports, hepatic decompensation and failure, in some cases fatal, have been reported in patients with decompensated cirrhosis or Child-Pugh B or C hepatic impairment when OCALIVA was dosed more frequently than the recommended starting dosage of 5 mg once weekly. Reported cases typically occurred within 2 to 5 weeks after starting OCALIVA and were characterized by an acute increase in total bilirubin and/or ALP concentrations in association with clinical signs and symptoms of hepatic decompensation (e.g., ascites, jaundice, gastrointestinal bleeding, worsening of hepatic encephalopathy). Patients who died due to liver-related complications generally had decompensated cirrhosis prior to treatment and were started on OCALIVA 5 mg once daily, which is 7-fold greater than the once-weekly starting regimen in this population.

Routinely monitor patients for progression of PBC disease, including liver-related complications, with laboratory and clinical assessments. Dosage adjustment, interruption or discontinuation may be required. Close monitoring is recommended for patients at an increased risk of hepatic decompensation. Severe intercurrent illnesses that may worsen renal function or cause dehydration (e.g., gastroenteritis), may exacerbate the risk of hepatic decompensation. Interrupt treatment with OCALIVA in patients with laboratory or clinical evidence of worsening liver function indicating risk of decompensation, and monitor the patient’s liver function. Consider discontinuing OCALIVA in patients who have experienced clinically significant liver-related adverse reactions. Discontinue OCALIVA in patients who develop complete biliary obstruction.

Liver-Related Adverse Reactions

Dose-related, liver-related adverse reactions including jaundice, worsening ascites and primary biliary cholangitis flare have been observed in clinical trials, as early as one month after starting treatment with OCALIVA 10 mg once daily up to 50 mg once daily (up to 5-times the highest recommended dosage). Monitor patients during treatment with OCALIVA for elevations in liver biochemical tests and for the development of liver-related adverse reactions.

Severe Pruritus

Severe pruritus was reported in 23% of patients in the OCALIVA 10 mg arm, 19% of patients in the OCALIVA titration arm, and 7% of patients in the placebo arm in a 12-month double-blind randomized controlled trial of 216 patients. Severe pruritus was defined as intense or widespread itching, interfering with activities of daily living, or causing severe sleep disturbance, or intolerable discomfort, and typically requiring medical interventions. Consider clinical evaluation of patients with new onset or worsening severe pruritus. Management strategies include the addition of bile acid resins or antihistamines, OCALIVA dosage reduction, and/or temporary interruption of OCALIVA dosing.

Reduction in HDL-C

Patients with PBC generally exhibit hyperlipidemia characterized by a significant elevation in total cholesterol primarily due to increased levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Dose-dependent reductions from baseline in mean HDL-C levels were observed at 2 weeks in OCALIVA-treated patients, 20% and 9% in the 10 mg and titration arms, respectively, compared to 2% in the placebo arm. Monitor patients for changes in serum lipid levels during treatment. For patients who do not respond to OCALIVA after 1 year at the highest recommended dosage that can be tolerated (maximum of 10 mg once daily), and who experience a reduction in HDL-C, weigh the potential risks against the benefits of continuing treatment.

Adverse Reactions

The most common adverse reactions occurring in ≥5% of subjects taking OCALIVA were pruritus, fatigue, abdominal pain and discomfort, rash, oropharyngeal pain, dizziness, constipation, arthralgia, thyroid function abnormality, and eczema.

Drug Interactions

Bile Acid Binding ResinsBile acid binding resins such as cholestyramine, colestipol, or colesevelam adsorb and reduce bile acid absorption and may reduce the absorption, systemic exposure, and efficacy of OCALIVA. If taking a bile acid binding resin, take OCALIVA at least 4 hours before or 4 hours after taking the bile acid binding resin, or at as great an interval as possible.

WarfarinThe International Normalized Ratio (INR) decreased following coadministration of warfarin and OCALIVA. Monitor INR and adjust the dose of warfarin, as needed, to maintain the target INR range when coadministering OCALIVA and warfarin.

CYP1A2 Substrates with Narrow Therapeutic IndexObeticholic acid, the active ingredient in OCALIVA, may increase the exposure to concomitant drugs that are CYP1A2 substrates. Therapeutic monitoring of CYP1A2 substrates with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g. theophylline and tizanidine) is recommended when coadministered with OCALIVA.

Inhibitors of Bile Salt Efflux PumpAvoid concomitant use of inhibitors of the bile salt efflux pump (BSEP) such as cyclosporine. Concomitant medications that inhibit canalicular membrane bile acid transporters such as the BSEP may exacerbate accumulation of conjugated bile salts including taurine conjugate of obeticholic acid in the liver and result in clinical symptoms. If concomitant use is deemed necessary, monitor serum transaminases and bilirubin.

Please see Full Prescribing Information, including Boxed WARNING for OCALIVA.

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Intercept Pharmaceuticals, Inc. at 1-844-782-ICPT or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

INDICATION AND IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

WARNING: HEPATIC DECOMPENSATION AND FAILURE IN INCORRECTLY DOSED PBC PATIENTS WITH CHILD-PUGH CLASS B OR C OR DECOMPENSATED CIRRHOSIS

  • In postmarketing reports, hepatic decompensation and failure, in some cases fatal, have been reported in patients with Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) with decompensated cirrhosis or Child-Pugh Class B or C hepatic impairment when OCALIVA was dosed more frequently than recommended.
  • The recommended starting dosage of OCALIVA is 5 mg once weekly for patients with Child-Pugh Class B or C hepatic impairment or a prior decompensation event.

INDICATION

OCALIVA is indicated for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) in combination with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in adults with an inadequate response to UDCA, or as monotherapy in adults unable to tolerate UDCA.

This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on a reduction in alkaline phosphatase (ALP). An improvement in survival or disease-related symptoms has not been established. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials.

Contraindications

OCALIVA is contraindicated in patients with complete biliary obstruction.

Warnings and Precautions

Hepatic Decompensation and Failure in Incorrectly Dosed PBC Patients with Child-Pugh Class B or C or Decompensated Cirrhosis

In postmarketing reports, hepatic decompensation and failure, in some cases fatal, have been reported in patients with decompensated cirrhosis or Child-Pugh B or C hepatic impairment when OCALIVA was dosed more frequently than the recommended starting dosage of 5 mg once weekly. Reported cases typically occurred within 2 to 5 weeks after starting OCALIVA and were characterized by an acute increase in total bilirubin and/or ALP concentrations in association with clinical signs and symptoms of hepatic decompensation (e.g., ascites, jaundice, gastrointestinal bleeding, worsening of hepatic encephalopathy). Patients who died due to liver-related complications generally had decompensated cirrhosis prior to treatment and were started on OCALIVA 5 mg once daily, which is 7-fold greater than the once-weekly starting regimen in this population.

Routinely monitor patients for progression of PBC disease, including liver-related complications, with laboratory and clinical assessments. Dosage adjustment, interruption or discontinuation may be required. Close monitoring is recommended for patients at an increased risk of hepatic decompensation. Severe intercurrent illnesses that may worsen renal function or cause dehydration (e.g., gastroenteritis), may exacerbate the risk of hepatic decompensation. Interrupt treatment with OCALIVA in patients with laboratory or clinical evidence of worsening liver function indicating risk of decompensation, and monitor the patient’s liver function. Consider discontinuing OCALIVA in patients who have experienced clinically significant liver-related adverse reactions. Discontinue OCALIVA in patients who develop complete biliary obstruction.

Liver-Related Adverse Reactions

Dose-related, liver-related adverse reactions including jaundice, worsening ascites and primary biliary cholangitis flare have been observed in clinical trials, as early as one month after starting treatment with OCALIVA 10 mg once daily up to 50 mg once daily (up to 5-times the highest recommended dosage). Monitor patients during treatment with OCALIVA for elevations in liver biochemical tests and for the development of liver-related adverse reactions.

Severe Pruritus

Severe pruritus was reported in 23% of patients in the OCALIVA 10 mg arm, 19% of patients in the OCALIVA titration arm, and 7% of patients in the placebo arm in a 12-month double-blind randomized controlled trial of 216 patients. Severe pruritus was defined as intense or widespread itching, interfering with activities of daily living, or causing severe sleep disturbance, or intolerable discomfort, and typically requiring medical interventions. Consider clinical evaluation of patients with new onset or worsening severe pruritus. Management strategies include the addition of bile acid resins or antihistamines, OCALIVA dosage reduction, and/or temporary interruption of OCALIVA dosing.

Reduction in HDL-C

Patients with PBC generally exhibit hyperlipidemia characterized by a significant elevation in total cholesterol primarily due to increased levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Dose-dependent reductions from baseline in mean HDL-C levels were observed at 2 weeks in OCALIVA-treated patients, 20% and 9% in the 10 mg and titration arms, respectively, compared to 2% in the placebo arm. Monitor patients for changes in serum lipid levels during treatment. For patients who do not respond to OCALIVA after 1 year at the highest recommended dosage that can be tolerated (maximum of 10 mg once daily), and who experience a reduction in HDL-C, weigh the potential risks against the benefits of continuing treatment.

Adverse Reactions

The most common adverse reactions occurring in ≥5% of subjects taking OCALIVA were pruritus, fatigue, abdominal pain and discomfort, rash, oropharyngeal pain, dizziness, constipation, arthralgia, thyroid function abnormality, and eczema.

Drug Interactions

Bile Acid Binding ResinsBile acid binding resins such as cholestyramine, colestipol, or colesevelam adsorb and reduce bile acid absorption and may reduce the absorption, systemic exposure, and efficacy of OCALIVA. If taking a bile acid binding resin, take OCALIVA at least 4 hours before or 4 hours after taking the bile acid binding resin, or at as great an interval as possible.

WarfarinThe International Normalized Ratio (INR) decreased following coadministration of warfarin and OCALIVA. Monitor INR and adjust the dose of warfarin, as needed, to maintain the target INR range when coadministering OCALIVA and warfarin.

CYP1A2 Substrates with Narrow Therapeutic IndexObeticholic acid, the active ingredient in OCALIVA, may increase the exposure to concomitant drugs that are CYP1A2 substrates. Therapeutic monitoring of CYP1A2 substrates with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g. theophylline and tizanidine) is recommended when coadministered with OCALIVA.

Inhibitors of Bile Salt Efflux PumpAvoid concomitant use of inhibitors of the bile salt efflux pump (BSEP) such as cyclosporine. Concomitant medications that inhibit canalicular membrane bile acid transporters such as the BSEP may exacerbate accumulation of conjugated bile salts including taurine conjugate of obeticholic acid in the liver and result in clinical symptoms. If concomitant use is deemed necessary, monitor serum transaminases and bilirubin.

Please see Full Prescribing Information, including Boxed WARNING for OCALIVA.

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Intercept Pharmaceuticals, Inc. at 1-844-782-ICPT or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.